Situation Psychotherapy in Cyprus
Situation of Psychotherapy in Romania - 2017:
There are two forums for psychotherapy in Romania:
The Romanian Psychotherapy Federation (FRP) and the College of Psychologists in Romania (CPR).
CPR was established in May 27, 2005. Procedures for regulating the profession of psychologist in Romania were initiated by the Association of Psychologists in Romania.
The CPR enforces the implementation of Law 213/2004 on the exercise of the profession of psychologist with the right of free practice, the establishment, organization and functioning of the Romanian College of Psychologists
This law "deals exclusively with psychologists trained in the psychology departments... Those who will be assimilated will represent a very small number" (Normative acts-2005). According to Article 15 of the Methodological Norms of Law 213 (2) The competence in the field of psychotherapy can also be acquired by graduates of the faculties of general medicine (psychiatrists), social assistance, philosophy, pedagogy, theology, provided that the university studies are completed with a package of the specialized disciplines established by decision of the Steering Committee, as well as the complementary training according to the requirements of the present norms.
FRP was founded in 2001, being a successor of The Romanian Psychotherapy Association (ARP) established in 1992 and member of EAP since 1993.
Between 2001-2007, the FRP took steps for the draft of the psychotherapy law, a project that was rejected in Parliament. In this bill, the proposal was psychotherapy to be a profession.
FRP is the umbrella organization for professional psychotherapeutic organizations in Romania and has as objectives the respite and the implementation of the international training and practice standards established by the EAP.
At this time, most associations retain FRP membership.
Training in psychotherapy is done through training programs within the associations. Most associations are FRP members.
Both CPR and FRP accredit training programs. An important objective of FRP and CPR collaboration is adherence to international standards.
In fact, in Romania psychotherapy is considered by law a specialization of psychology.
According to the law of psychology no. 213, the term psychotherapist is psychologist psychotherapist in psychotherapy (practitioner, specialist and principal).
Situation of psychotherapy in Albania (2017)
In Albania there is no regulation by law on psychotherapy.
The Situation of Psychotherapy in Switzerland
On April 1, 2013, the Federal Law about Psychology Professions (Psychologieberufegesetz, PsyG) has been introduced in Switzerland. According to this new law, all students who want to follow postgradual training in psychotherapy have to pass a master degree in psychology at a Swiss high school or university. As a consequence of this law, all institutions licensed to offer postgradual training have to undergo new accreditation of their curricula which have to fulfil the quality standards set down in the PsyG. This accreditation process should be finalised in 2018.
Situation of psychotherapists
Psychotherapists – whether independent or employed – are only allowed to treatment by delegation, mandated by a medical doctor.
Only psychotherapists who have completed the above training are licensed to use the title Federally Approved Psychotherapist. And only this title allows them to open a practice, permission issued by the cantonal departments of health.
Basically, the training of psychotherapists follows three phases: basic training (master in psychology), postgradual training (psychotherapy) and further training.
Postgradual training takes roughly four years and has to be completed within six years, consisting of:
400 units of theory of the chosen method
100 units of transdisciplinary (generic) theory
150 units of self-awareness training
150 units of supervision (single- and group setting)
2 years at 100 % of hands-on training at an organisation offering psychosocial provision.
Further training has to be followed continuously and should add up to 500 hours over four years.
Candidates with a degree in medicine wanting to follow postgradual training in psychotherapy are under supervision of the Swiss Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (SGPP).
Postgradual training institutes on psychotherapy
Institutes offering postgradual training in psychotherapy are licensed by the Federal Office for Public Health. All training institutes – there are approx. 40 recognised institutes in Switzerland – are privately financed; they receive no subsidies from the public hand. No institute has so far been integrated in an institution of higher education. For the time being, they have been accredited on a provisional basis and are awaiting final accreditation until 2018.
Psychotherapy is not included in general public insurance. Voluntary supplement insurance can partly include psychotherapy treatment. The question whether psychotherapy should be included in basic health insurance is subject to long ongoing debates.
Psychotherapy modalities are accepted as long as they are executed by a psychotherapist listed on the general register of health insurances. To be included on that list, psychotherapists have to fulfil strict criteria.
Facts and figures
- There are approx. 5’700 (1450 independent, 1000, delegated, 1270 independent and delegated) psychotherapists practicing in Switzerland, whereof approx. 25% trainees (ref. BASS survey 2012).
- The average activity level of psychotherapists: 54%
- There are approx. 40 licensed training institutes on psychotherapy in Switzerland.
- Cost of psychotherapy treatment: CHF 140 to 170 per hour are recommended
Situation Psychotherapy in Greece
by National Organisation for Psychotherapy of Greece (NOPG)
=> see PDF file:
Situation Psychotherapy in Denmark
by Dansk Psykoterapeutforeningen (DPF) - The Danish Association of Psychotherapists
=> see PDF file:
Situation Psychotherapy in Bulgaria
A Short Overview on Psychotherapy in Bulgaria Today—Practice, Training and Political Developments
The condition of psychotherapy in Bulgaria today is in various ways an inheritance, continuation and furthering upon the previous developments in this field—the very roots of psychotherapy in Bulgarian can be searched for in the beginning of the XXth century as well as in the developments between the two world wars—processes that have been almost completely stopped and vanished in the times of communism to be re-started and renewed again in the very end of 70s and most of all in the very beginning of 80s of the XXth century.
This article does not have a task to make a full and comprehensive research on the entire sphere of psychotherapy in Bulgaria. It gives short outlines of the current situation through looking upon some concrete parameters of it.
The Bulgarian Association for Psychotherapy (BAP) exists legally since 23 November 1993, registered as an NGO in public benefit under the Law for Non-for-Profit Legal Bodies. Currently there are 111 individual members and 10 group members of BAP. The BAP also has declared and plays the role of an umbrella organisation to the psychotherapy sphere in Bulgaria in general.
The number of the individual members of BAP—being fully trained psychotherapists, psychotherapy practitioners or people in earlier stages of their professional training--does not exhaust the total number of practicing psychotherapists in Bulgaria. Some other psychotherapists are members only of their own modalities’ associations and societies. (There is also another phenomenon to be also mentioned here, in brackets. This is that some other professions—mostly psychologists but also people from other professional spheres—unduly name their consultative practice with clients psychotherapy without having any specialised training in psychotherapy. This is a big professional issue that BAP has not found and come with a proper resolution of so far.) Otherwise the estimation of numbers would be that through the group members of BAP as well as through other professional associations and societies outside BAP--there may be are more than 500 people professionally involved in psychotherapy sphere. In other words a number lower to the real social impact and needs of psychotherapy that is there currently in Bulgaria.
Since 2008 BAP established and has been running National Register of Psychotherapists in Bulgaria. This is the only legitimate register existing and to be referred to. Currently there are 50 registered psychotherapists in the National Register where the grant parenting procedure has been applied in certain cases. Since almost most of the existing psychotherapeutic schools in Bulgaria nowadays have established and organized the training and formation of their followers. The trend is that most of the people who apply and become nowadays registered psychotherapists are fully trained in at least one psychotherapeutic modality.
The group members of BAP in a way also represent most of the psychotherapeutic schools existing in Bulgaria. Those members are (in alphabetical order) Bulgarian Association of Art Therapy, Bulgarian Association for Cognitive-Behaviour Psychotherapy, Bulgarian Association for Family Therapy, Bulgarian Association for Music Therapy, Association of Short-Term Psychotherapists, Bulgarian Neoreichian Psychoterapeutic Association, Bulgarian Society for Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy, Bulgarian Society of Analytical Psychology of K.G.Jung, Study Group for Development of Psychoanalysis in Bulgaria, The Society for Positive Psychotherapy in Bulgaria.
In addition there are two alternative schools in Lacanican psychoanalysis. These are Bulgarian Society for Lacanian Psychoanalysis in Bulgaria and Bulgarian Psychoanalytic Space Society. Although they are not members of BAP some of their key figures and psychotherapists are individual members.
A crucial recent development in the field is the establishment of the Bulgarian Society of Group Analysis and Group Processes which marked the end of the training of the first group of group analysts in Bulgaria—a joint endeavour of local and foreign psychotherapists affiliated to SFU.
Training in Gestalt Therapy as well as in Transactional Analysis has been recently started.
The training of psychotherapists varies from modality to another according to the specificity of the school, its roots and history, founders, etc. The professional associations that are members of BAP share and apply in their training standards and requirements of BAP/EAP. These are 3200 total hours of training, of those 1800 of basic training and 1400 of specialized training, etc. The specialized level of psychotherapy training takes place outside universities, in private institutes. Some schools/modalities are eager and do recognize the basic training in psychotherapy being possible and given at universities—which is the case of Bulgaria is mostly applied about university training and degrees in psychology. There is still not shared understanding that, although there might be some similarities, the training in psychotherapy is something different than what the basic training in psychology is, for example. Although the Strasbourg declaration is officially accepted by BAP and agreed upon among professional community people from other professional backgrounds--explained like broader humanities and/or social sciences--are still rarely accepted and let to training in psychotherapy only by certain psychotherapeutic schools. University people in general with very little exceptions are pretty hesitant, sceptical and even actively opposing the idea of psychotherapy training taking place in university realm. That is often a result of simple envy and fear. Sometimes it also shows misunderstanding between the psychotherapy science and education and therapy as a process of (self-)healing that universities seem to be frenetically afraid of. That all immediately brings to the surface another important issue to be mentioned here. It is that thus at the moment scientific research in psychotherapy in my country is fated to remain artificially distracted from universities and researchers.
Having the above said there are 16 psychotherapeutic modalities represented in Bulgaria currently—being members or outside BAP. These are (in alphabetical order) Analytical Psychology of K.G.Jung; Art-Therapy; Cognitive-Behavioural Psychotherapy; Family Therapy; Gestalt Therapy; Group Analysis; Hypnosis; Lacanian Psychoanalysis; Music Therapy; Neoreichian Analytic Psychotherapy; Positive Psychotherapy; Psychoanalysis; Psychodrama, Sociomentry and Group Psychotherapy; Short-Term Psychotherapy; Transactional Analysis; Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Many in numbers those psychotherapeutic modalities are on different stages of their own histories and development. They vary in professional reputation, social application of their activities and practices, efficiency, effectiveness, popularity, number of their trainees and followers, etc.
There is no legislation in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is neither officially recognized nor among listed professions in Bulgaria. The BAP has been putting efforts in improving the situation and developing a law project to be introduced and adopted by the Parliament for quite some year now. In the previous mandate of BAP (2009-2012)—thanks to the dedication and voluntary work of just few colleagues, incl. a lawyer, and the support of the Managing Board—a first draft of the Law in Psychotherapy was accomplished and introduced before the professional community. In the current mandate (2012-2015) the Managing Board of BAP has declared their desire to continue further on with the already achieved stage of development of the law project as one of their priorities.
The government does not participate in regulation and governing the psychotherapy in Bulgaria in no way. Psychotherapy is not covered and/or paid by health insurance or any other public funds. Psychotherapeutic practice is most of all organized privately, outside clinics and hospitals, in private cabinets, etc. There is no referring system or any other official form of connecting the two realities—the one of the state health system and the private one of psychotherapy practice—besides the word of mouth practiced between individuals. Thus psychotherapy in Bulgaria stays quite much in isolation to this and other important social, public and political processes. Some psychotherapeutic schools though—trying to be better connected at least to the social reality--apply their approaches in public health centres, community centres, etc. Others—especially group methods--are successfully working in even more marginalized contexts like social houses for children deprived from parental care, homeless people living on the streets with no public or any other support, etc. This all brings again to the surface the old-new question about if psychotherapy belongs to the social or to the health realm, to both or to many more realms that we have to be pro-active about...
Vienna, 14 February 2014
Registered Psychotherapist; Psychodrama-Therapist; Group Analyst
Elected National Delegate of BAP to EAP
Situation Psychotherapy in Slovenia
There is no law for psychotherapy in Slovenia, nor any other form of legal regulation of the profession of psychotherapy.
In the past, during the years 2006 and 2010 the Ministry of Health had formed the Working group for preparing the draft law. When the working group had finished its work by having created the draft, the Minister of Health changed and as the new Minister was not in favour of it, he 'put it in the drawer'.
Since then there have been various attempts and intitatives to renew the process of creating legislation for psychotherapy. The situation within the professon has been constantly changing and as a result there are now three major professional organizations which try to provide for some kind of regulation in their ranks:
a) the Slovene NAO – the Slovene Umbrella Association for Psycotherapy (SKZP) which has collective membership and unites National Associations of different psycotherapeutic schools (reality therapy, gestalt therapy, psychodinamic psychotherapy, transactional anaylsis, transpersonal psychotherapy, systemic family psychotherapy, integrative therapy, integrative psychotherapy, logotherapy, psychoanalitic psychotherapy, psychodrama). Within our NAO we have created the Register of Holders of ECP and the Slovene Diploma for Psychotherapy. Recently, we have articulated the criteria for the continuous professional development on the basis of the EAP criteria, which now serve as the criteria for renewal of registration every 5 years.
b) the Association of Psycotherapists of Slovenia (ZPS). This association unites mainly but not solely clinical psychologists nad psychiatrists who work within the National Health System and its membership is individual.
In the past there was some co-operation between the two above mentioned organizations, but it was now put to a stop due to the change of leardership in the ZPS. Both organizations had their representatives in the above mentioned Working group in the Ministry of Health.
c) the Slovene Association of Psychotherapists and Counsellors (SZPS). This association has come into existence in 2017. It has inidividual membership and unites psychotherapists and counsellors with the background of psychotherapy and counselling trainings at the Universities (the Sigmund Freud University for Psychotherapeutic Science of Ljubljana; Theological Faculty of Ljubljana; the Faculty for Applicable Social Studies of Nova Gorica).
In the Spring this year (2017), the Ministry of Health sent to all professional organizations that it considers relevant for the field of psychotherapy (including the Slovene NAO) a requirement to choose their respresentative in the Working group for norming the field of psychotherapy. The group hasn't met yet and this is as far as we have come regarding regulation so far.
President of the Slovene NAO SKZP
by Slovenian Umbrella Association for Psychotherapy (SKZP)
Situation Psychotherapy in the United Kingdom
by United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)
=> see PDF file:
The Situation of Psychotherapy in Croatia
Croatian Umbrella Organization for Psychotherapy (SPUH)
=> see PDF file:
Italian situation of Psychotherapy - as per 2017
The exercise of the psychotherapeutic activity is subjected to a specific training, to be acquired after obtaining a degree in psychology or in medicine. It’s a four years training which include adequate training in psychotherapy. These trainings are activated in consideration of the Italian law (10 March 1982, no. 162), by universities or private institutes allowed to organize trainings in psychotherapy by the Italian law (11 December 1998, n. 509).
In some ways, although the Italian legislation is quite restrictive, it also offers some advantages.
The first is to see recognized all the approaches historically present in Italy, giving them equal dignity, without distinction.
Another advantage is that “the training” remains a prerogative for private institutions that historically had and still have the know-how about the training for psychotherapists, beyond academic fields. In fact, the law seems to combine perfectly the needs of Psychotherapy that always is characterized by two dimensions , Science and Art.
People coming from the university, have already been prepared about Science. In private institutes they find that "lab" that allows them to become "specialized craftsmen" or, even better, "artists of the mind". It is here that, in consideration of each approach, a personal work path is guaranteed, also receiving a clinical supervision (this is not guaranteed by universities).
So, we believe that this transition between universities and private schools, allows a good mix for the future mental health specialists.
On behalf of F.I.A.P.
Situation of Psychotherapy in Italy - 2014
In Italy there are 37.000 psychotherapists (2/3 psychologists and 1/3 medical doctors); therefore, there is about one psychotherapist on 1.600 persons in Italy. If educational trends of Psychology Schools continues in the current direction, there will be over 50.000 new graduates in 2016 and 25.000 of they will address the specialization in psychotherapy likely.
Only psychologists and medical doctors that have a minimum 4 year post graduate training can practice in Italy. The post graduate training is offered by Universities and Private Psychotherapy Schools recognized by the Ministry of Education.
Up to now, a total of 148 private psychotherapy schools of every empirically supported approach have been recognized.
They are: A.F.P.P. Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; A.R.P.C.I.; A.S.A.R.N.I.A. Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia dell'Età Evolutiva ad Indirizzo Psicodinamico; Academy of Behavioral Sciences - Scuola di specializzazione in Psicoterapia dello Sviluppo e l’Adolescenza n. 190; Accademia di Neuropsicologia dello Sviluppo; Accademia di Psicoterapia della Famiglia; AION - Scuola di Specializzazione Quadriennale in Psicoterapia Analitica; Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva; Associazione IBTG- Scuola Gestalt di Torino; Associazione Romana per la Psicoterapia dell’Adolescenza;Auximon - Istituto di formazione in analisi transazionale; Centro Berne Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro di Psicologia Clinica; Centro di Psicologia e Analisi Transazionale Milano - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro di Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale; Centro di Terapia Strategica - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Breve Strategica; Centro Italiano di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica per l’Infanzia e l’Adolescenza; Centro Italiano per lo Studio e lo Sviluppo della Psicoterapia a Breve Termine; Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia; Centro Padovano di Terapia della Famiglia; Centro Paul Lemoine – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro Psicologia Dinamica - Scuola di Psicoterapia Dinamica Integrata; Centro Studi di Terapia Familiare e Relazionale; Centro Studi e Terapia per la Psicoterapia della Coppia e della Famiglia; Centro Studi Eteropoiesi; Centro Studi Psicosomatica; Centro Terapia Cognitiva di Como; CeRP Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia ad indirizzo psicoanalitico; COIRAG Confederazione di Organizzazioni Italiane per la Ricerca Analitica sui Gruppi; CORSO QUADRIENNALE DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA - ISTITUTO BERNA; CRP - Centro per la Ricerca in Psicoterapia - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Cognitivo-Comportamentale e Intervento Psicosociale; EMPATEIA - SCUOLA QUADRIENNALE DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA UMANISTICA ( approccio rogersiano); Fondazione Istituto Euromediterraneo per la Formazione, Ricerca Terapia e lo Sviluppo delle Politiche Sociali; IACP - Istituto dell'Approccio Centrato sulla Persona; ICLeS - Istituto per la Clinica dei Legami Sociali; IdO - Istituto di Ortofonologia; IGF - Istituto Gestalt Firenze s.r.l; Institute of Constructivist Psychology- Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Costruttivista; IPI - Istituto di Psicoterapia Integrata; IPOD istituto di psicodramma a orientamento dinamico; IPRA - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Post-Razionalista; IPSICO - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva; IREP-Istituto Ricerche Europee in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; IRIS – Insegnamento e Ricerca Individuo e Sistemi; ISPPREF - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Relazionale e Familiare; Istituto A.T. Beck; Istituto Analisi Immaginativa; Istituto C.S.R.M. Centro Studi Relazionale Mediterraneo; Istituto Dedalus; Istituto di Gestalt HCC - Human Communication Center Italy; Istituto di Gestalt Therapy H.C.C. Kairòs; Istituto di Psicologia Psicoanalitica; Istituto di Psicologia Umanistica Esistenziale – IPUE; Istituto di Psicoterapia Analitica dell'Istituto "H.S. Sullivan"; Istituto di Psicoterapia Aneb; Istituto di Psicoterapia della Gestalt e Analisi Transazionale; Istituto di Psicoterapia Espressiva: Psicoterapie Integrate all’arte Terapia e alla Danza Movimento Terapia; Istituto di Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale (già Istituto Appulo Lucano di Terapia Familiare); Istituto di Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale srl; ISTITUTO DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOANALITICA "LUCIANO LEPPO"; Istituto di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica – Torino; Istituto di psicoterapia Psicoumanitas Srl; ISTITUTO DI PSICOTERAPIA RELAZIONALE; Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale di Napoli srl; Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale Lucca; Istituto di Psicoterapia Sistemica Integrata; ISTITUTO DI TERAPIA FAMILIARE DI FIRENZE; Istituto di Terapia Familiare di Siena; Istituto di Terapia Relazionale – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia ad indirizzo Sistemico-Relazionale; Istituto Erich Fromm di Psicoanalisi Neofreudiana;Istituto Europeo di Formazione, Consulenza Sistemica e Terapia Relazionale; Istituto Freudiano; Istituto Freudiano per la Clinica, la Terapia e la Scienza; Istituto Gestalt di Puglia (Lecce – Brindisi – Bari); Istituto Gestalt e Body Work - I.G.B.W; Istituto Gestalt Romagna; ISTITUTO GESTALT TRIESTE; Istituto Italiano di Formazione in Analisi Bioenergetica; Istituto Italiano di Psicoanalisi di Gruppo I.I.P.G.; Istituto Italiano di Psicoterapia Relazionale; Istituto Italiano Psicologia della Relazione; Istituto Medicina e Psicologia Sistemica; Istituto Miller; Istituto Modenese di Psicologia Sistemica e Relazionale – ISCRA; Istituto per lo Studio delle Psicoterapie – ISP; Istituto per lo Studio delle Psicoterapie - Psicoterapie brevi ad Approccio Strategico; Istituto per lo Studio e la Ricerca sui Disturbi Psichici; ISTITUTO ROMANO DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICODINAMICA INTEGRATA; Istituto Tolman; Istituto Torinese di Analisi Transazionale e Gestalt; Istituto Veneto di Terapia Familiare; ISTITUTO WATSON; ITCC -Istituto Tepapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale; ITFB - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale; NAVEN Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Sistemica Familiare e Relazionale; P.Psi.S.Co.- Psicoterapia Psicodinamica ad Orientamento Socio-Costruttivista; PerFormat – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Analitico Transazionale; Psiche e Immaginario - Istituto di Psicologia Clinica; RIZA Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; S.E.F. Scuola Europea di Psicoterapia Funzionale; S.I.A.B. - Società Italiana di Analisi Bioenergetica; S.I.A.R. - Scuola Italiana di Analisi Reichiana; S.I.B Società Italiana di Biosistemica; SBPC: Scuola Bolognese di Psicoterapia Cognitiva; SCINT Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Cognitivo Interpersonale; Scuola Adleriana di Psicoterapia Istituto di Psicologia Individuale "A.Adler"; Scuola di Analisi Transazionale S.I.F.P.; Scuola di Formazione di Psicoterapia ad Indirizzo Dinamico – SFPID; Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva ASIPSE; Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva di Milano – ASIPSE; Scuola di formazione in Tecniche Immaginative di analisi e ristrutturazione del Profondo – GITIM; Scuola di Formazione “Fondazione Italiana Gestalt”; Scuola di Psicoterapia ad Orientamento Sistemico e Socio – Costruzionista; Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva ad orientamento Costruttivista del CESIPc; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA DELL'INFANZIA E DELL'ADOLESCENZA - M.IN.D. SaS; Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA-CENTRO CLINICO CROCETTA; Scuola di Psicoterapia Comparata; Scuola di Psicoterapia in Psicologia Psicoanalitica del Sé e Psicoanalisi Relazionale - Scuola ISIPSé; Scuola di Psicoterapia Integrata e Musicoterapia; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOANALITICA; Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica dell'età evolutiva dell'Istituto di Psicoterapia del Bambino e dell'Adolescente; Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica dell’età Evolutiva (ASNE – SIPsIA); Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicosintetica; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOSINTETICA ED IPNOSI ERICKSONIANA "H. BERNHEIM"; Scuola di specializzazione in psicoterapia ad indirizzo analitico transazionale ad orientamento psicodinamico; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Analitica Atanor; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Centro Paul Lemoine; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Integrata; SCUOLA DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA INTERATTIVO-COGNITIVA; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; Scuola di Specializzazione Pluralistica Integrata; Scuola di Specializzazione di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica Esistenziale "Gaetano Benedetti"; Scuola Internazionale di Ricerca e Formazione in Psicologia Clinica e Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; Scuola Internazionale di Specializzazione con la Procedura Immaginativa srl – SISPI; Scuola Romana Psicoterapia Familiare; Scuola S.A.I.G.A. di Individual-Psicologia per Psicoterapeuti Istituto di Psicoterapia ad indirizzo adleriano; Scuola Specializzazione Psicoterapia Transazionale; SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI ANALISI TRANSAZIONALE "SEMINARI ROMANI DI ANALISI TRANSAZIONALE"; Scuola Superiore di Psicoterapia Bionomica – FORMIST; Scuola Superiore in Psicologia Clinica IFREP 93; SIIPE - SCUOLA ITALIANA DI IPNOSI E PSICOTERAPIA ERICKSONIANA; SiPGI - Scuola in Psicoterapia Gestaltica Integrata; Società Medica Italiana di Self-Analisi Bioenergetica; SPIGA - Società di Psicoanalisi Interpersonale e GruppoAnalisi - Istituto di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; SSPIG Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Interpersonale e di Gruppo; Studio di Psicodramma Scuola di Psicoterapia.
Since 1989, in Italy, psychotherapy is regulated by law (Law 56/1989, in attach) and there’s a national Guild for psychotherapists. Psychotherapy is not paid by health insurance and, on average, clients pay a min. euro 60,00 and a max euro 120,00. Psychotherapy modalities accepted are: Psychodinamics; Humanistics; Psycho Body Therapy; Sistemic-Family Therapy; Cognitive-Behavioural.
Situation of Psychotherapy in Spain - updated as per October 2017:
There is not a law in Spain that recognize psychotherapy as a profession.
Many psychotherapist that are members of the spanish federation are working as psychotherapist by taking advantage of this legal gap.
The Spanish Association of Psychologist (member of EFPA) is trying to legalize psychotherapist only if they are psychologist.
The EFPA association in Spain is against our statutes because we recognize other grades to study and training on psychotherapy.
In Catalonia, the psychiatrists section of the Medical Organization is recognizing our statutes and training requieres for psychiatrists that want be psychotherapists.
Last summer (june 2017) The spanish federation changed their statutes and will recognize any ECP holder as psychotherapist in Spain.
Any ECP holder could be a member of FEAP (Spanish Federation).
In this moment, be a FEAP member is only a recognition of quality training and has no legal implication.
The situation of psychotherapy in Spain - status 2013
How many psychotherapists work in your country?
I can answer this question about FEAP’s members; that means that there are many psychotherapists working in Spain that aren’t FEAP’s members.
As members of FEAP there are 2172 psychotherapist registered right now.
Overview on psychotherapy training:
Psychotherapy is a post degree training:
This training has to be of a minimum of 600 hours of technical and theoretical training in one of the specialities and a minimum of 2 years in clinical practice.
List of psychotherapy schools in your country:
These are the 51 Associations that are psychotherapy schools in our Association:
Asociació Catalana de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (ACPP)
Asociación Andaluza de Terapia Familiar y Sistemas Humanos (AATFASH)
Asociación Aragonesa de Terapia de Familia (AATF)
Asociación Aragonesa para Investigación Psíquica del Niño y el Adolescente (AAPIPNA)
Asociación Cántabra de Psicoterapeutas (ACPA)
Asociación de Psicoterapeutas Laureano Cuesta
Asociación de Psicoterapia Analítica Grupal (APAG)
Asociacion de Psicoterapia Humanista Integrativa y Counselling de España (APHICE)
Asociación de Psicoterapia Integradora Humanista
Asociación de Psicoterapia Operativa Psicoanalítica (APOP)
Asociación de Terapeutas de Familia, Mediadores Familiares y Expertos en Intervenciones Sistémicas de la Comunidad Valenciana (ATFCV)
Asociación de Terapia Familiar y de Sistemas (SYFA)
Asociación Escuela de Clínica Psicoanalítica con Niños y Adolescentes de Madrid
Asociación Española de Constelaciones Familiares Bert Hellinger - AEBH
Asociación Española de Hipnosis Ericksoniana (AEHE)
Asociación Española de Psicodrama (AEP)
Asociación Española de Psico-somatoterapia
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Dinámica y Sistemas Humanos (AEPDSH)
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (AEPP)
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica Oskar Pfister
Asociación Española de Psicoterapias Cognitivas (ASEPCO)
Asociación Española de Psiquiatría y Psicología de la Infancia y Adolescencia (AEPPIA)
Asociación Española de Sexología Clínica (AESC)
Asociación Española de Terapia Gestalt (AETG)
Asociación Española para Investigación y Desarrollo de la Terapia Familiar (AEI+DTF)
Asociación Madrileña de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (AMPP)
Asociación Madrileña de Terapia de Pareja, Familia y Otros Sistemas Humanos (AMTPFOSH)
Asociación para el Estudio de Temas Grupales, Psicosociales e Institucionales. Área 3
Asociación para el Estudio Sistémico de la Familia y Otros Sistemas Humanos (AESFASHU)
Asociación Vasca de Psicoterapias Dinámica y Sistémica (AVAPSI)
Asociación Vasco-Navarra de Terapia Familiar, Mediación Familiar e Intervención Sistémica (AVNTF)
Associació Catalana per a la Clínica i l'Ensenyament de la Psicoanàlisi (ACCEP)
Centro de Estudios y Aplicación del Psicoanálisis y Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (CEAP)
Centro Psicoanalítico de Madrid (CPM)
Escuela Clínica de Psicoanalítica con Niños y Adolescentes de Barcelona (ECPNA)
Escuela Española de Psicoterapia
Escuela Española de Terapia Reichiana (ESTER)
Gradiva, Asociación de Psicoanálisis Aplicado
Gradiva, Associació d’Estudis Psicoanalítics
Grupo de Psicoterapia Analítica de Bilbao (GPAB)
Institut de Psicología Analítica Carl Gustav Jung Barcelona
Instituto de Psicoterapia Relacional (IPR)
Instituto Español de Psicodrama y Psicoterapia Psicoanalíticos
IPSI, Formació Psicoanalitica
Sociedad Catalana de Terapia Familiar (SCTF)
Sociedad Española de Psicoanálisis (SEP)
Sociedad Española de Psicología Analítica (SEPA)
Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría y Psicoterapia del Niño y el Adolescente (SEPYPNA)
Sociedad Española de Terapia Bioenergética (SETB)
Sociedad Española para el Desarrollo del Grupo, la Psicoterapia y el Psicoanálisis (SEGPA)
Psychotherapy is not recognised by the Spanish laws.
The only National Register of Psychotherapists is ours.
The FEAP’s register.
Payment: How much do clients pay on average per hour ?
As psychotherapy is not regulated this can vary a lot.
The average could be 50€ per session.
Is psychotherapy paid by health insurance?
No, never by the national health insurance.
Some private insurance companies pay an average of 20 sessions per year.
Which governmental body is responsible for psychotherapy in your country?
The Health Ministery.
Which psychotherapy modalities are accepted in your country?
Children and Adolescents Psychotherapy
Body and Emotional Psychoterapy
Humanistic Psychotherapy (includes Gestalt Psychotherapy)
Family and Couples Psychotherapy
Joseph Knobel Freud
The situation of psychotherapy in Norway, 2014
1. How many psychotherapists work in your country.
We have no idea how many psychotherapists that work in Norway , but under the umbrella of Norwegian Federation of Psychotherapy (NFP) we have approx 600 members.
2. Overview on psychotherapy training
In order to be accepted as a training institute under the umbrella of NFP the institutes training program as a minimum has to be in accordance with the standards of NFP .
3. List of psychotherapy schools in your country
Under the umbrella of NPF there are at present 5 training institutes.
• Norske Gestalt Institutt (Gestalt)
• Norsk Institutt for Psykosyntese (Psychosynthesis)
• Norsk institutt for Kunst- og uttrykksterapi (Art and expressive therapy)
• Morenoinstituttet (Psychodrama)
• Trondheim Psykodramainstituttet (Psychodrama)
4. Legal situation (is there a law or regulation, if yes please attach the law regulation to the article)
There is no specific law for Psychotherapy/psychotherapists, but
the law for Practitioners of Alternative Treatments apply.
Also several sections in the laws that regulates governmental authorized health workers (psychologists, doctors, psychiatrists, nurses, etc) called Lov om Helsepersonell, applies to psychotherapists when relevant.
5. Is there a national register for psychotherapists
No, there is no national register for psychotherapists, but there is a voluntary lists of practitioners of alternative treatments in which many of the members of NFPs member associations are listed in the section of their modality.
NFP is spring 2014 creating an database on all qualified members in our practitioners associations.
6. Payment; how much do clients pay on average per hour
This varies a lot but usually in the range of Euro 60-130
7. Is psychotherapy paid by health insurance
Usually not, but there are exceptions
8. Which government is responsible for psychotherapy in your country
The Ministry of Health
9. Which psychotherapy modalities are accepted in your country
As there is no law, all modalities are accepted. Our organization include the following modalities:
Expressive arts therapy
Analytical (Jungian) therapy
Integrative movement therapy
However, the training must as a minimum be in accordance with NFP/EAP standards.
NORWEGIAN ASSOCIATION FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY
NORSK FORBUND FOR PSYKOTERAPI (NFP)
NFP was founded in 1998 .
In 2014 its members are 5 training institutes and 7 practitioners organisations.
The Situation of Psychotherapy in Austria
Situation in Belgium - updated as per October 2017:
Until now, there was no legislation concerning psychotherapy, and besides Medical Doctors all other psychotherapists were in fact practicing illegaly.
The situation of psychotherapy in the Netherlands, 2017
In the Netherlands a restrictive law on psychotherapy applies. The entrance level as well as the modality-training is defined by governmental bodies.
Since 1997 the NAP (the Dutch awarding organisation of EAP) started to organize the ‘alternative’ psychotherapists in the ECP register.
To be in the NAP register, therapists have to prove they meet three requirements:
In 2013 and 2014 the healthcare insurance companies stopped to reimburse almost all psychotherapists, the ‘recognized’ field and the ‘alternative’ field.
Most psychotherapists work in private practise where clients pay about
German situation of psychotherapy
The situation of Psychotherapy in France
In France, the title of “psychotherapist” is protected since 2010, without any definition, whereas the practice is not regulated by French law
- The use of the title of psychotherapist is restricted for professionals registered in the national register of psychotherapists.
- This register is established by the regional authorities (ARS) in the district of the professional practice. For more information http://www.ars.sante.fr/Qu-est-ce-que-l-ARS.89783.0.html
To register, the applicant must be
- medical doctor,
- psychologist (master degree)
- and/or psycho-analyst regularly registered in a psychoanalysis association directory.
All new students must have these titles to begin any specialised training required by the law.
Apart from psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, all must undergo some additional training: 200 to 400 hours of psychopathology, and 2 to 5 months of practice in a institution (fieldwork).
The former psychotherapists who have been officially practicing for more than 5 years before the 20th of may 2010 can apply to be registered, after a control by a regional committee of 6 professionals: 2 psychiatrists, 2 psychologists and 2 psychoanalysts; 2 of them must be professors in University.
The applicants can be required to follow a complementary training in psychopathology and/or 2 to 5 months of field training (fieldwork).
Some private institutes can ask to be accredited (by the same committees) for the training in psychopathology. They must have a scientific committee and a research team.
To read the texts of the law (in French), click the links below:
- LOI n° 2004-806 du 9 août 2004 relative à la politique de santé publique,
- Décret n° 2010-534 du 20 mai 2010 relatif à l'usage du titre de psychothérapeute,
- Arrêté du 9 juin 2010 relatif aux demandes d'inscription au registre national des psychothérapeutes,
- Décret n° 2012-695 du 7 mai 2012 modifiant le décret n° 2010-534 du 20 mai 2010 relatif à l'usage du titre de psychothérapeute.
FF2P – Fédération Française de Psychothérapie et Psychanalyse
The FF2P http://www.ff2p.fr was founded 17 years ago in order to provide a framework and regulations for the practice of psychotherapy at a time when no regulation and supervision of the practice existed. Our concern has always been the protection of users. We agree with EAP criteria and the Strasbourg Declaration on Psychotherapy of 1990.
The FF2P has defined specific criteria to give the people living in France a guarantee of the training and professionalism of practitioners trained by institutes accredited training by FF2P.
It is also for these reasons that well before the proposed legislation and the adoption of the 2010 law, the FF2P had established a register that users can refer to to find a practitioner or a training institute.
1 500 psychotherapists, 21 associations and 36 training institutes (including 16 EAPTIs)
are registered by the FF2P and listed in its directory.
Payment: the clients pay around 60 euros for one session
Psychotherapy is not reimbursed by the Social security system, except, in hospitals and in some cases, when it is practiced by medical doctors (very partly).
Some private insurance companies may reimburse partially.
The minister of Health is responsible for psychotherapy.
The 2010 law recognizes no psychotherapy methods or modalities. It only mentions psychopathology.
Situation Psychotherapy in Kosovo
by Kosova Association for Psychotherapy (KAP)
=> see PDF file:
Situation Psychotherapy in Poland
by Polish Federation for Psychotherapy (PFP)
=> see PDF file:
European Association for Psychotherapy - Handelskai 132, Stiege 1 B 2, A-1020 Vienna, Austria - www.europsyche.org