Situation Psychotherapy in Cyprus



Situation of Psychotherapy in Romania - 2017:

There are two forums for psychotherapy in Romania:
The Romanian Psychotherapy Federation (FRP) and the College of Psychologists in Romania (CPR).

CPR was established in May 27, 2005.  Procedures for regulating the profession of psychologist in Romania were initiated by the Association of Psychologists in Romania.

The CPR enforces the implementation of Law 213/2004 on the exercise of the profession of psychologist with the right of free practice, the establishment, organization and functioning of the Romanian College of Psychologists

This law "deals exclusively with psychologists trained in the psychology departments... Those who will be assimilated will represent a very small number" (Normative acts-2005). According to Article 15 of the Methodological Norms of Law 213 (2) The competence in the field of psychotherapy can also be acquired by graduates of the faculties of general medicine (psychiatrists), social assistance, philosophy, pedagogy, theology, provided that the university studies are completed with a package of the specialized disciplines established by decision of the Steering Committee, as well as the complementary training according to the requirements of the present norms.

FRP was founded in 2001, being a successor of The Romanian Psychotherapy Association (ARP) established in 1992 and member of EAP since 1993.

Between 2001-2007, the FRP took steps for the draft of the psychotherapy law, a project that was rejected in Parliament. In this bill, the proposal was psychotherapy to be a profession.

FRP is the umbrella organization for professional psychotherapeutic organizations in Romania and has as objectives the respite and the implementation of the international training and practice standards established by the EAP.

At this time, most associations retain FRP membership.
Training in psychotherapy is done through training programs within the associations. Most associations are FRP members.

Both CPR and FRP accredit training programs. An important objective of FRP and CPR collaboration is adherence to international standards.

In fact, in Romania psychotherapy is considered by law a specialization of psychology.
According to the law of psychology no. 213, the term psychotherapist is psychologist psychotherapist in psychotherapy (practitioner, specialist and principal).


Situation of psychotherapy in Albania (2017)

In Albania there is no regulation by law on psychotherapy.


The Situation of Psychotherapy in Switzerland

On April 1, 2013, the Federal Law about Psychology Professions (Psychologieberufegesetz, PsyG) has been introduced in Switzerland. According to this new law, all students who want to follow postgradual training in psychotherapy have to pass a master degree in psychology at a Swiss high school or university. As a consequence of this law, all institutions licensed to offer postgradual training have to undergo new accreditation of their curricula which have to fulfil the quality standards set down in the PsyG. This accreditation process should be finalised in 2018.

Situation of psychotherapists
Psychotherapists – whether independent or employed – are only allowed to treatment by delegation, mandated by a medical doctor.
Only psychotherapists who have completed the above training are licensed to use the title Federally Approved Psychotherapist. And only this title allows them to open a practice, permission issued by the cantonal departments of health.

Basically, the training of psychotherapists follows three phases: basic training (master in psychology), postgradual training (psychotherapy) and further training.
Postgradual training takes roughly four years and has to be completed within six years, consisting of:
400 units of theory of the chosen method
100 units of transdisciplinary (generic) theory
150 units of self-awareness training
150 units of supervision (single- and group setting)
2 years at 100 % of hands-on training at an organisation offering psychosocial provision.
Further training has to be followed continuously and should add up to 500 hours over four years.
Candidates with a degree in medicine wanting to follow postgradual training in psychotherapy are under supervision of the Swiss Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (SGPP).

Postgradual training institutes on psychotherapy
Institutes offering postgradual training in psychotherapy are licensed by the Federal Office for Public Health. All training institutes – there are approx. 40 recognised institutes in Switzerland – are privately financed; they receive no subsidies from the public hand. No institute has so far been integrated in an institution of higher education. For the time being, they have been accredited on a provisional basis and are awaiting final accreditation until 2018.

Health insurance
Psychotherapy is not included in general public insurance. Voluntary supplement insurance can partly include psychotherapy treatment. The question whether psychotherapy should be included in basic health insurance is subject to long ongoing debates.
Psychotherapy modalities are accepted as long as they are executed by a psychotherapist listed on the general register of health insurances. To be included on that list, psychotherapists have to fulfil strict criteria.

Facts and figures
- There are approx. 5’700 (1450 independent, 1000, delegated, 1270 independent and delegated) psychotherapists practicing in Switzerland, whereof approx. 25% trainees (ref. BASS survey 2012).
- The average activity level of psychotherapists: 54%
- There are approx. 40 licensed training institutes on psychotherapy in Switzerland.
- Cost of psychotherapy treatment: CHF 140 to 170 per hour are recommended



Situation Psychotherapy in Greece 

by National Organisation for Psychotherapy of Greece (NOPG)

=> see PDF file:


Situation Psychotherapy in Denmark

by Dansk Psykoterapeutforeningen (DPF) - The Danish Association of Psychotherapists

=> see PDF file:



Situation Psychotherapy in Bulgaria

A Short Overview on Psychotherapy  in Bulgaria Today—Practice, Training and Political Developments

The condition of psychotherapy in Bulgaria today is in various ways an inheritance,  continuation and furthering upon the previous developments in this field—the very roots of psychotherapy in Bulgarian can be searched for in the beginning of the XXth century as well as in the developments between the two world wars—processes that have been almost completely stopped and vanished in the times of communism to be re-started and renewed again in the very end of 70s and most of all in the very beginning of 80s of the XXth century.

This article does not have a task to make a full and comprehensive research on the entire sphere of psychotherapy in Bulgaria. It gives short outlines of the current situation through looking upon some concrete parameters of it.

The Bulgarian Association for Psychotherapy (BAP) exists legally since 23 November 1993, registered as an NGO in public benefit under the Law for Non-for-Profit Legal Bodies. Currently there are 111 individual members and 10 group members of BAP. The BAP also has declared and plays the role of an umbrella organisation to the psychotherapy sphere in Bulgaria in general.

The number of the individual members of BAP—being fully trained psychotherapists,  psychotherapy practitioners or people in earlier stages of their professional training--does not exhaust the total number of practicing psychotherapists in Bulgaria. Some other psychotherapists are members only of their own modalities’ associations and societies. (There is also another phenomenon to be also mentioned here, in brackets. This is that some other professions—mostly psychologists but also people from other professional spheres—unduly name their consultative practice with clients psychotherapy without having any specialised  training in psychotherapy. This is a big professional issue that BAP has not found and come with a proper resolution of so far.) Otherwise the estimation of numbers would be that through the group members of BAP as well as through other professional associations and societies outside BAP--there may be are more than 500 people professionally involved in psychotherapy sphere. In other words a number lower to the real social impact and needs of psychotherapy that is there currently in Bulgaria.

Since 2008 BAP established and has been running National Register of Psychotherapists in Bulgaria. This is the only legitimate register existing and to be referred to. Currently there are 50 registered psychotherapists in the National Register where the grant parenting procedure has been applied in certain cases. Since almost most of the existing psychotherapeutic schools in Bulgaria nowadays have established and organized the training and formation of their followers. The trend is that most of the people who apply and become nowadays registered psychotherapists are fully trained in at least one psychotherapeutic modality.

The group members of BAP in a way also represent most of the psychotherapeutic schools existing in Bulgaria. Those members are (in alphabetical order) Bulgarian Association of Art Therapy, Bulgarian Association for Cognitive-Behaviour Psychotherapy, Bulgarian Association for Family Therapy, Bulgarian Association for Music Therapy, Association of Short-Term Psychotherapists,  Bulgarian Neoreichian Psychoterapeutic Association, Bulgarian Society for Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy, Bulgarian Society of Analytical Psychology of K.G.Jung, Study Group for Development of Psychoanalysis in Bulgaria, The Society for Positive Psychotherapy in Bulgaria.
In addition there are two alternative schools in Lacanican psychoanalysis. These are Bulgarian Society for Lacanian Psychoanalysis in Bulgaria and Bulgarian Psychoanalytic Space Society. Although they are not members of BAP some of their key figures and psychotherapists are individual members.
A crucial recent development in the field is the establishment of the Bulgarian Society of Group Analysis and Group Processes which marked the end of the training of the first group of group analysts in Bulgaria—a joint endeavour of local and foreign psychotherapists affiliated to SFU.
Training in Gestalt Therapy as well as in Transactional Analysis has been recently started.

The training of psychotherapists varies from modality to another according to the specificity of the school, its roots and history, founders, etc. The professional associations that are members of BAP share and apply in their training standards and requirements of BAP/EAP. These are 3200 total hours of training, of those 1800 of basic training and 1400 of specialized training, etc. The specialized level of psychotherapy training takes place outside universities, in private institutes. Some schools/modalities are eager and do recognize the basic training in psychotherapy being possible and given at universities—which is the case of Bulgaria is mostly applied about university training and degrees in psychology. There is still not shared understanding that, although there might be some similarities, the training in psychotherapy is something different than what the basic training in psychology is, for example. Although the Strasbourg declaration is officially accepted by BAP and agreed upon among professional community people from other professional backgrounds--explained like broader humanities and/or social sciences--are still rarely accepted and let to training in psychotherapy only by certain psychotherapeutic schools. University people in general with very little exceptions are pretty hesitant, sceptical and even actively opposing the idea of psychotherapy training taking place in university realm. That is often a result of simple envy and fear. Sometimes it also shows misunderstanding between the psychotherapy science and education and therapy as a process of (self-)healing that universities seem to be frenetically afraid of. That all immediately brings to the surface another important issue to be mentioned here. It is that thus at the moment scientific research in psychotherapy in my country is fated to remain artificially distracted from universities and researchers.

Having the above said there are 16 psychotherapeutic modalities represented in Bulgaria currently—being members or outside BAP. These are (in alphabetical order) Analytical Psychology of K.G.Jung; Art-Therapy; Cognitive-Behavioural Psychotherapy; Family Therapy; Gestalt Therapy; Group Analysis; Hypnosis; Lacanian Psychoanalysis; Music Therapy; Neoreichian Analytic Psychotherapy; Positive Psychotherapy; Psychoanalysis; Psychodrama, Sociomentry and Group Psychotherapy; Short-Term Psychotherapy; Transactional Analysis; Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Many in numbers those psychotherapeutic modalities are on different stages of their own histories and development. They vary in professional reputation, social application of their activities and practices, efficiency, effectiveness, popularity, number of their trainees and followers, etc.

There is no legislation in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is neither officially recognized nor among listed professions in Bulgaria. The BAP has been putting efforts in improving the situation and developing a law project to be introduced and adopted by the Parliament for quite some year now. In the previous mandate of BAP (2009-2012)—thanks to the dedication and voluntary work of just few colleagues, incl. a lawyer, and the support of the Managing Board—a first draft of the Law in Psychotherapy was accomplished and introduced before the professional community. In the current mandate (2012-2015) the Managing Board of BAP has declared their desire to continue further on with the already achieved stage of development of the law project as one of their priorities.

The government does not participate in regulation and governing the psychotherapy in Bulgaria in no way. Psychotherapy is not covered and/or paid by health insurance or any other public funds. Psychotherapeutic practice is most of all organized privately, outside clinics and hospitals, in private cabinets, etc. There is no referring system or any other official form of connecting the two realities—the one of the state health system and the private one of psychotherapy practice—besides the word of mouth practiced between individuals. Thus psychotherapy in Bulgaria stays quite much in isolation to this and other important social, public and political processes. Some psychotherapeutic schools though—trying to be better connected at least to the social reality--apply their approaches in public health centres, community centres, etc. Others—especially group methods--are successfully working in even more marginalized contexts like social houses for children deprived from parental care, homeless people living on the streets with no public or any other support, etc. This all brings again to the surface the old-new question about if psychotherapy belongs to the social or to the health realm, to both or to many more realms that we have to be pro-active about...

Vienna, 14 February 2014

Tzvetelina Iossifova
Registered Psychotherapist; Psychodrama-Therapist; Group Analyst
Elected National Delegate of BAP to EAP



Situation Psychotherapy in Slovenia

There is no law for psychotherapy in Slovenia, nor any other form of legal regulation of the profession of psychotherapy.

In the past, during the years 2006 and 2010 the Ministry of Health had formed the Working group for preparing the draft law. When the working group had finished its work by having created the draft, the Minister of Health changed and as the new Minister was not in favour of it, he 'put it in the drawer'.

Since then there have been various attempts and intitatives to renew the process of creating legislation for psychotherapy. The situation within the professon has been constantly changing and as a result there are now three major professional organizations which try to provide for some kind of regulation in their ranks:

a)  the Slovene NAO – the Slovene Umbrella Association for Psycotherapy (SKZP) which has collective membership and unites National Associations of different psycotherapeutic schools (reality therapy, gestalt therapy, psychodinamic psychotherapy, transactional anaylsis, transpersonal psychotherapy, systemic family psychotherapy, integrative therapy, integrative psychotherapy, logotherapy, psychoanalitic psychotherapy, psychodrama). Within our NAO we have created the Register of Holders of ECP and the Slovene Diploma for Psychotherapy. Recently, we have articulated the criteria for the continuous professional development on the basis of the EAP criteria, which now serve as the criteria for renewal of registration every 5 years.

b) the Association of Psycotherapists of Slovenia (ZPS). This association unites mainly but not solely clinical psychologists nad psychiatrists who work within the National Health System and its membership is individual.

In the past there was some co-operation between the two above mentioned organizations, but it was now put to a stop due to the change of leardership in the ZPS. Both organizations had their representatives in the above mentioned Working group in the Ministry of Health.

c) the Slovene Association of Psychotherapists and Counsellors (SZPS). This association has come into existence in 2017. It has inidividual membership and unites psychotherapists and counsellors with the background of psychotherapy and counselling trainings at the Universities (the Sigmund Freud University for Psychotherapeutic Science of Ljubljana; Theological Faculty of Ljubljana; the Faculty for Applicable Social Studies of Nova Gorica).

In the Spring this year (2017), the Ministry of Health sent to all professional organizations that it considers relevant for the field of psychotherapy (including the Slovene NAO) a requirement to choose their respresentative in the Working group for norming the field of psychotherapy. The group hasn't met yet and this is as far as we have come regarding regulation so far.

Ljubljana, 10.11.2017

Tomaž Flajs
President of the Slovene NAO SKZP

by Slovenian Umbrella Association for Psychotherapy (SKZP)

United Kingdom

Situation Psychotherapy in the United Kingdom

by United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)

=> see PDF file:


The Situation of Psychotherapy in Croatia

Croatian Umbrella Organization for Psychotherapy (SPUH)

=> see PDF file: 


Italian situation of Psychotherapy - as per 2017

The exercise of the psychotherapeutic activity is subjected to a specific training, to be acquired after obtaining a degree in psychology or in medicine. It’s a four years training which include adequate training in psychotherapy. These trainings are activated in consideration of the Italian law (10 March 1982, no. 162), by universities or private institutes allowed to organize trainings in psychotherapy by the Italian law  (11 December  1998, n. 509).
In some ways, although the Italian legislation is quite restrictive, it also offers some advantages.
The first is to see recognized all the approaches historically present in Italy, giving them equal dignity, without distinction.
Another advantage is that “the training” remains a prerogative for private institutions that historically had and still have the know-how about the training for psychotherapists, beyond academic fields. In fact, the law seems to combine perfectly the needs of Psychotherapy that always is characterized by  two dimensions , Science and Art.
People coming from the university, have already been prepared  about Science. In private institutes they find that "lab" that allows them to become "specialized craftsmen" or, even better, "artists of the mind". It is here that, in consideration of each approach, a personal work path is guaranteed, also receiving a clinical supervision (this is not guaranteed by universities).
So, we believe that this transition between universities and private schools, allows a good mix for the future mental health specialists.

Patrizia Moselli
On behalf of F.I.A.P.

Situation of Psychotherapy in Italy - 2014

In Italy there are 37.000 psychotherapists (2/3 psychologists and 1/3 medical doctors); therefore, there is about one psychotherapist on 1.600 persons in Italy.  If educational trends of Psychology Schools continues in the current direction, there will be over 50.000 new graduates in 2016 and 25.000 of they will address the specialization in psychotherapy likely. 

Only psychologists and medical doctors that have a minimum 4 year post graduate training can practice in Italy. The post graduate training is offered by Universities and Private Psychotherapy Schools recognized by the Ministry of Education.

Up to now, a total of 148 private psychotherapy schools of every empirically supported approach have been recognized.
They are: A.F.P.P. Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; A.R.P.C.I.; A.S.A.R.N.I.A. Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia dell'Età Evolutiva ad Indirizzo Psicodinamico; Academy of Behavioral Sciences - Scuola di specializzazione in Psicoterapia dello Sviluppo e l’Adolescenza n. 190; Accademia di Neuropsicologia dello Sviluppo; Accademia di Psicoterapia della Famiglia; AION - Scuola di Specializzazione Quadriennale in Psicoterapia Analitica; Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva; Associazione IBTG- Scuola Gestalt di Torino; Associazione Romana per la Psicoterapia dell’Adolescenza;Auximon - Istituto di formazione in analisi transazionale; Centro Berne Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro di Psicologia Clinica; Centro di Psicologia e Analisi Transazionale Milano - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro di Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale; Centro di Terapia Strategica - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Breve Strategica; Centro Italiano di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica per l’Infanzia e l’Adolescenza; Centro Italiano per lo Studio e lo Sviluppo della Psicoterapia a Breve Termine; Centro Milanese di Terapia della Famiglia; Centro Padovano di Terapia della Famiglia; Centro Paul Lemoine – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; Centro Psicologia Dinamica - Scuola di Psicoterapia Dinamica Integrata; Centro Studi di Terapia Familiare e Relazionale; Centro Studi e Terapia per la Psicoterapia della Coppia e della Famiglia; Centro Studi Eteropoiesi; Centro Studi Psicosomatica; Centro Terapia Cognitiva di Como; CeRP Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia ad indirizzo psicoanalitico; COIRAG Confederazione di Organizzazioni Italiane per la Ricerca Analitica sui Gruppi; CORSO QUADRIENNALE DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA - ISTITUTO BERNA; CRP - Centro per la Ricerca in Psicoterapia - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Cognitivo-Comportamentale e Intervento Psicosociale; EMPATEIA - SCUOLA QUADRIENNALE DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA UMANISTICA ( approccio rogersiano); Fondazione Istituto Euromediterraneo per la Formazione, Ricerca Terapia e lo Sviluppo delle Politiche Sociali; IACP - Istituto dell'Approccio Centrato sulla Persona; ICLeS - Istituto per la Clinica dei Legami Sociali; IdO - Istituto di Ortofonologia; IGF - Istituto Gestalt Firenze s.r.l; Institute of Constructivist Psychology- Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Costruttivista; IPI - Istituto di Psicoterapia Integrata; IPOD istituto di psicodramma a orientamento dinamico; IPRA - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Post-Razionalista; IPSICO - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva; IREP-Istituto Ricerche Europee in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; IRIS – Insegnamento e Ricerca Individuo e Sistemi; ISPPREF - Istituto di Psicologia e Psicoterapia Relazionale e Familiare; Istituto A.T. Beck; Istituto Analisi Immaginativa; Istituto C.S.R.M. Centro Studi Relazionale Mediterraneo; Istituto Dedalus; Istituto di Gestalt HCC - Human Communication Center Italy; Istituto di Gestalt Therapy H.C.C. Kairòs; Istituto di Psicologia Psicoanalitica; Istituto di Psicologia Umanistica Esistenziale – IPUE; Istituto di Psicoterapia Analitica dell'Istituto "H.S. Sullivan"; Istituto di Psicoterapia Aneb; Istituto di Psicoterapia della Gestalt e Analisi Transazionale; Istituto di Psicoterapia Espressiva: Psicoterapie Integrate all’arte Terapia e alla Danza Movimento Terapia; Istituto di Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale (già Istituto Appulo Lucano di Terapia Familiare); Istituto di Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale srl; ISTITUTO DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOANALITICA "LUCIANO LEPPO"; Istituto di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica – Torino; Istituto di psicoterapia Psicoumanitas Srl; ISTITUTO DI PSICOTERAPIA RELAZIONALE; Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale di Napoli srl; Istituto di Psicoterapia Relazionale Lucca; Istituto di Psicoterapia Sistemica Integrata; ISTITUTO DI TERAPIA FAMILIARE DI FIRENZE; Istituto di Terapia Familiare di Siena; Istituto di Terapia Relazionale – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia ad indirizzo Sistemico-Relazionale; Istituto Erich Fromm di Psicoanalisi Neofreudiana;Istituto Europeo di Formazione, Consulenza Sistemica e Terapia Relazionale; Istituto Freudiano; Istituto Freudiano per la Clinica, la Terapia e la Scienza; Istituto Gestalt di Puglia (Lecce – Brindisi – Bari); Istituto Gestalt e Body Work - I.G.B.W; Istituto Gestalt Romagna; ISTITUTO GESTALT TRIESTE; Istituto Italiano di Formazione in Analisi Bioenergetica; Istituto Italiano di Psicoanalisi di Gruppo I.I.P.G.; Istituto Italiano di Psicoterapia Relazionale; Istituto Italiano Psicologia della Relazione; Istituto Medicina e Psicologia Sistemica; Istituto Miller; Istituto Modenese di Psicologia Sistemica e Relazionale – ISCRA; Istituto per lo Studio delle Psicoterapie – ISP; Istituto per lo Studio delle Psicoterapie - Psicoterapie brevi ad Approccio Strategico; Istituto per lo Studio e la Ricerca sui Disturbi Psichici; ISTITUTO ROMANO DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICODINAMICA INTEGRATA; Istituto Tolman; Istituto Torinese di Analisi Transazionale e Gestalt; Istituto Veneto di Terapia Familiare; ISTITUTO WATSON; ITCC -Istituto Tepapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale; ITFB - Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Familiare e Relazionale; NAVEN Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Sistemica Familiare e Relazionale; P.Psi.S.Co.- Psicoterapia Psicodinamica ad Orientamento Socio-Costruttivista; PerFormat – Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Analitico Transazionale; Psiche e Immaginario - Istituto di Psicologia Clinica; RIZA Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; S.E.F. Scuola Europea di Psicoterapia Funzionale; S.I.A.B. - Società Italiana di Analisi Bioenergetica; S.I.A.R. - Scuola Italiana di Analisi Reichiana; S.I.B Società Italiana di Biosistemica; SBPC: Scuola Bolognese di Psicoterapia Cognitiva; SCINT Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Cognitivo Interpersonale; Scuola Adleriana di Psicoterapia Istituto di Psicologia Individuale "A.Adler"; Scuola di Analisi Transazionale S.I.F.P.; Scuola di Formazione di Psicoterapia ad Indirizzo Dinamico – SFPID; Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva ASIPSE; Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia Comportamentale e Cognitiva di Milano – ASIPSE; Scuola di formazione in Tecniche Immaginative di analisi e ristrutturazione del Profondo – GITIM; Scuola di Formazione “Fondazione Italiana Gestalt”; Scuola di Psicoterapia ad Orientamento Sistemico e Socio – Costruzionista; Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva ad orientamento Costruttivista del CESIPc; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA DELL'INFANZIA E DELL'ADOLESCENZA - M.IN.D. SaS; Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA COGNITIVA-CENTRO CLINICO CROCETTA; Scuola di Psicoterapia Comparata; Scuola di Psicoterapia in Psicologia Psicoanalitica del Sé e Psicoanalisi Relazionale - Scuola ISIPSé; Scuola di Psicoterapia Integrata e Musicoterapia; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOANALITICA; Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica dell'età evolutiva dell'Istituto di Psicoterapia del Bambino e dell'Adolescente; Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica dell’età Evolutiva (ASNE – SIPsIA); Scuola di Psicoterapia Psicosintetica; SCUOLA DI PSICOTERAPIA PSICOSINTETICA ED IPNOSI ERICKSONIANA "H. BERNHEIM"; Scuola di specializzazione in psicoterapia ad indirizzo analitico transazionale ad orientamento psicodinamico; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Analitica Atanor; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Centro Paul Lemoine; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Integrata; SCUOLA DI SPECIALIZZAZIONE IN PSICOTERAPIA INTERATTIVO-COGNITIVA; Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; Scuola di Specializzazione Pluralistica Integrata; Scuola di Specializzazione di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica Esistenziale "Gaetano Benedetti"; Scuola Internazionale di Ricerca e Formazione in Psicologia Clinica e Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica; Scuola Internazionale di Specializzazione con la Procedura Immaginativa srl – SISPI; Scuola Romana Psicoterapia Familiare; Scuola S.A.I.G.A. di Individual-Psicologia per Psicoterapeuti Istituto di Psicoterapia ad indirizzo adleriano; Scuola Specializzazione Psicoterapia Transazionale; SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI ANALISI TRANSAZIONALE "SEMINARI ROMANI DI ANALISI TRANSAZIONALE"; Scuola Superiore di Psicoterapia Bionomica – FORMIST; Scuola Superiore in Psicologia Clinica IFREP 93; SIIPE - SCUOLA ITALIANA DI IPNOSI E PSICOTERAPIA ERICKSONIANA; SiPGI - Scuola in Psicoterapia Gestaltica Integrata; Società Medica Italiana di Self-Analisi Bioenergetica; SPIGA - Società di Psicoanalisi Interpersonale e GruppoAnalisi - Istituto di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia; SSPIG Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicoterapia Interpersonale e di Gruppo; Studio di Psicodramma Scuola di Psicoterapia; IIPR (Istituto Italiano di Psicoterapia Relazionale); SAPP (Scuola dell'Accademia di Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica)

Since 1989, in Italy, psychotherapy is regulated by law (Law 56/1989, in attach) and there’s a national Guild for psychotherapists. Psychotherapy is not paid by health insurance and, on average, clients pay a min. euro 60,00 and a max euro 120,00. Psychotherapy modalities accepted are: Psychodinamics; Humanistics; Psycho Body Therapy; Sistemic-Family Therapy; Cognitive-Behavioural.



Situation of Psychotherapy in Spain - updated as per October 2017:

There is not a law in Spain that recognize psychotherapy as a profession.
Many psychotherapist that are members of the spanish federation are working as psychotherapist by taking advantage of this legal gap.
The Spanish Association of Psychologist (member of EFPA) is trying to legalize psychotherapist only if they are psychologist.
The EFPA association in Spain is against our statutes because we recognize other grades to study and training on psychotherapy.
In Catalonia, the psychiatrists section of the Medical Organization is recognizing our statutes and training requieres for psychiatrists that want be psychotherapists.

Last summer (june 2017) The spanish federation changed their statutes and will recognize any ECP holder as psychotherapist in Spain.
Any ECP holder could be a member of FEAP (Spanish Federation).
In this moment, be a FEAP member is only a recognition of quality training and has no legal implication.

The situation of psychotherapy in Spain - status 2013

How many psychotherapists work in your country?

I can answer this question about FEAP’s members; that means that there are many psychotherapists working in Spain that aren’t FEAP’s members.
As members of FEAP there are 2172 psychotherapist registered right now.

Overview on psychotherapy training:

Psychotherapy is a post degree training:
This training has to be of a minimum of 600 hours of technical and theoretical training in one of the specialities and a minimum of 2 years in clinical practice.

List of psychotherapy schools in your country:

These are the 51 Associations that are psychotherapy schools in our Association:

Asociació Catalana de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (ACPP)
Asociación Andaluza de Terapia Familiar y Sistemas Humanos (AATFASH)
Asociación Aragonesa de Terapia de Familia (AATF)
Asociación Aragonesa para Investigación Psíquica del Niño y el Adolescente (AAPIPNA)
Asociación Cántabra de Psicoterapeutas (ACPA)
Asociación de Psicoterapeutas Laureano Cuesta
Asociación de Psicoterapia Analítica Grupal (APAG)
Asociacion de Psicoterapia Humanista Integrativa y Counselling de España (APHICE)
Asociación de Psicoterapia Integradora Humanista
Asociación de Psicoterapia Operativa Psicoanalítica (APOP)
Asociación de Terapeutas de Familia, Mediadores Familiares y Expertos en Intervenciones Sistémicas de la Comunidad Valenciana (ATFCV)
Asociación de Terapia Familiar y de Sistemas (SYFA)
Asociación Escuela de Clínica Psicoanalítica con Niños y Adolescentes de Madrid
Asociación Española de Constelaciones Familiares Bert Hellinger - AEBH
Asociación Española de Hipnosis Ericksoniana (AEHE)
Asociación Española de Psicodrama (AEP)
Asociación Española de Psico-somatoterapia
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Dinámica y Sistemas Humanos (AEPDSH)
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (AEPP)
Asociación Española de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica Oskar Pfister
Asociación Española de Psicoterapias Cognitivas (ASEPCO)
Asociación Española de Psiquiatría y Psicología de la Infancia y Adolescencia (AEPPIA)
Asociación Española de Sexología Clínica (AESC)
Asociación Española de Terapia Gestalt (AETG)
Asociación Española para Investigación y Desarrollo de la Terapia Familiar (AEI+DTF)
Asociación Madrileña de Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (AMPP)
Asociación Madrileña de Terapia de Pareja, Familia y Otros Sistemas Humanos (AMTPFOSH)
Asociación para el Estudio de Temas Grupales, Psicosociales e Institucionales. Área 3
Asociación para el Estudio Sistémico de la Familia y Otros Sistemas Humanos (AESFASHU)
Asociación Vasca de Psicoterapias Dinámica y Sistémica (AVAPSI)
Asociación Vasco-Navarra de Terapia Familiar, Mediación Familiar e Intervención Sistémica (AVNTF)
Associació Catalana per a la Clínica i l'Ensenyament de la Psicoanàlisi (ACCEP)
Centro de Estudios y Aplicación del Psicoanálisis y Psicoterapia Psicoanalítica (CEAP)
Centro Psicoanalítico de Madrid (CPM)
Escuela Clínica de Psicoanalítica con Niños y Adolescentes de Barcelona (ECPNA)
Escuela Española de Psicoterapia
Escuela Española de Terapia Reichiana (ESTER)
Fundación Puigvert
Gradiva, Asociación de Psicoanálisis Aplicado
Gradiva, Associació d’Estudis Psicoanalítics
Grupo de Psicoterapia Analítica de Bilbao (GPAB)
Institut de Psicología Analítica Carl Gustav Jung Barcelona
Instituto de Psicoterapia Relacional (IPR)
Instituto Español de Psicodrama y Psicoterapia Psicoanalíticos
IPSI, Formació Psicoanalitica
Sociedad Catalana de Terapia Familiar (SCTF)
Sociedad Española de Psicoanálisis (SEP)
Sociedad Española de Psicología Analítica (SEPA)
Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría y Psicoterapia del Niño y el Adolescente (SEPYPNA)
Sociedad Española de Terapia Bioenergética (SETB)
Sociedad Española para el Desarrollo del Grupo, la Psicoterapia y el Psicoanálisis (SEGPA)

Legal situation

Psychotherapy is not  recognised by the Spanish laws.
The only National Register of Psychotherapists  is ours.
The FEAP’s register.

Payment: How much do clients pay on average per hour
As psychotherapy is not regulated this can vary a lot.
The average could be 50€ per session.

Is psychotherapy paid by health insurance?

No, never by the national health insurance.
Some private insurance companies pay an average of 20 sessions per year.

Which governmental body is responsible for psychotherapy in your country?

The Health Ministery.

Which psychotherapy modalities are accepted in your country?

Children and Adolescents Psychotherapy
Group Psychotherapy
Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy
Body and Emotional Psychoterapy
Humanistic Psychotherapy (includes Gestalt Psychotherapy)
Family and Couples Psychotherapy

Joseph Knobel Freud
February 2014


The situation of psychotherapy in Norway, 2014

1. How many psychotherapists work in your country.

We have no idea how many psychotherapists that work in Norway , but under the umbrella of Norwegian Federation of Psychotherapy  (NFP) we  have  approx  600 members.

2. Overview on psychotherapy training

In order to be accepted as  a training institute under the umbrella  of NFP  the institutes  training program  as a minimum has to be in accordance with the standards of NFP .

3. List of psychotherapy schools in your country

Under the umbrella of NPF there are  at present 5 training institutes.

•  Norske  Gestalt Institutt     (Gestalt)
• Norsk Institutt for Psykosyntese   (Psychosynthesis)
• Norsk institutt for Kunst- og uttrykksterapi  (Art and expressive therapy)
• Morenoinstituttet     (Psychodrama)
• Trondheim Psykodramainstituttet   (Psychodrama)

4. Legal situation (is there   a law or regulation, if yes please attach the law regulation to the article)

There is no specific law for Psychotherapy/psychotherapists, but 
the law  for Practitioners of Alternative Treatments apply. 

Also   several sections in the laws that regulates governmental authorized health workers (psychologists, doctors, psychiatrists, nurses, etc) called  Lov om Helsepersonell,  applies to psychotherapists when relevant.

5. Is there a national register for psychotherapists

No, there is no national register for psychotherapists, but there is a voluntary lists of practitioners of alternative treatments  in which  many of the members of NFPs member associations  are listed in the section of their modality.

NFP  is spring 2014 creating an database on all qualified  members in our  practitioners associations.

6. Payment; how much do clients pay on average per hour

This varies a lot but usually in the range of  Euro 60-130

7. Is psychotherapy paid by health insurance

Usually not, but there are exceptions

8. Which government is responsible for psychotherapy in your country

The Ministry of Health

9. Which psychotherapy modalities are accepted in your country

As there is no law, all modalities are accepted. Our organization include the following modalities:

Gestalt therapy
Expressive arts therapy
Psychodrama therapy
Psychosynthesis therapy
Analytical (Jungian) therapy
Integrative movement therapy
Dance therapy

However, the training  must as a minimum  be  in accordance with NFP/EAP standards.


NFP was founded in  1998 .
In 2014  its members are 5 training institutes and  7  practitioners organisations.


The Situation of Psychotherapy in Austria

Psychotherapy is an independent profession regulated by Austrian law since 1990 (Psychotherapy Act, 361st Federal Act of June 7, 1990 on the Exercise of Psychotherapy).
The Psychotherapy Act regulates the training, practice and exercise of professional psychotherapy, as well as the legal framework for the Psychotherapy Advisory Council („Psychotherapiebeirat“) and brought about the psychotherapists’ equal footing with doctors.

Furthermore, the competent supervisory authority, namely the Federal Ministry of Health (Link:, issues additional professional guidelines on a regular basis which ensures that not only the legal framework, but also the exercise of psychotherapy in practice comply to very high standards.
One of the key documents is the Professional codex („Berufscodex“).


To qualify as a psychotherapist in Austria candidates have to complete their professional training which comprises two stages:
1. a general training („Propädeutikum“) which is followed by
2. a specialist training („Fachspezifikum“).

Both, the general part (preparatory instruction in psychotherapy, duration: 1-3 yrs) and the specialist part (specialist instruction in psychotherapy, duration: 3- 6 yrs), are taught in theory and in practice and include personal psychotherapy, as well as supervision.

Accepted preparatory trainings for entry are not restricted to undergraduate courses in medicine or psychology, allowing for a broader access route.

Applicants should have completed training at one of the following institutions or have completed one of the listed courses, respectively:

• academy for social workers or a former teaching institute for advanced social occupations
• academy of pedagogy
• teaching institute with public teaching authorization for marriage and family counselling
• short study course in music therapy or a university training course in music therapy
• university studies in medicine, pedagogy, philosophy, psychology, publishing and communication science, or theology.

In Austria psychotherapy training is by tradition mainly provided by private training organisations; i.e. associations, societies and institutes for psychotherapy, which have to seek accreditation by the Ministry of Health. Over the past decade tendencies to academicise psychotherapy training have intensified.

In total the Ministry of Health has accredited 18 training organisations to provide the general training and 39 to provide the specialised training.

The list can be accessed online:

National Register

In keeping with section 17 of the Psychotherapy Act the Federal Ministry of Health keeps a list of psychotherapists authorised to exercise psychotherapy in Austria:
As of October 2017, there  are  currently  approximately  9,100  accredited psychotherapists in Austria out of which a significant number does not actually practice their profession.

Accepted modalities

At the moment there is a total of 23 accredited psychotherapy methods in Austria:
1. Analytical Psychology
2. Group Psychoanalysis
3. Individual Psychology
4. Psychoanalysis/Psychoanalytical   Psychotherapy
5. Psychoanalyically oriented Psychotherapy
6. Autogenic  Psychotherapy
7. Daseinsanalysis
8. Dynamic Group Psychotherapy
9. Hypnotherapy
10. Catathym-Imaginative  Psychotherapy
11.Concentrative Movement Therapy 12.Transactional  Analysis
13. Existential Analysis
14. Existential Analysis and Logotherapy
15.Gestalttheoretical  Psychotherapy
16.Integrative  Gestalttherapy
17.Integrative Therapy
18.Client-centred  Psychotherapy
19.Person-centred  Psychotherapy
21.Neuro-linguistic  Psychotherapy
22.Systemic Family Therapy
23.Behavioural  Therapy

Costs of psychotherapy sessions

Fees for professional private psychotherapy are not regulated and vary enormously. Fully qualified psychotherapists tend to charge between € 80,00 - € 120,00 for a 50 minute session.

There exists no general agreement covering the complete funding of psychotherapy by Austrian social insurance institutions/national health service. Currently only a fraction of all patients get a full refund, the majority receive a small subsidisation (in most cases in € 21,80 per session) which has not been indexed since 1992. A current study shows that out of the 400,000 Austrians in need of psychotherapeutic treatment only 65,000 are currently in therapy. More than half  of  these  clients  fund  their psychotherapy  themselves.

Future  developments

The Psychotherapy Act has been scheduled for a comprehensive amendment for some years which is expected to bring major changes to current training regulations (i.e. further academicisation in line with EU-wide Bologna criteria) and other important aspects concerning the profession.

At the moment work on this first major amendment is still ongoing. At the core of the review is the reform of the current training regulations which looks set to lead to its academisation. Another core element constitute the responsibilities and the composition of the Psychotherapy Advisory Council. On the part of the ÖBVP (Austrian NAO Link we wish for a stronger involvement of the professional representation. Further more numerous details are being incorporated which are partly already covered in existing guidelines.

The Austrian Psychotherapy Act has contributed a lot to the development of psychotherapy as a distinct and independent profession. Its weakness lies in the fact that up until now the establishment of a Federal Psychotherapists’ Chamber has not been enacted with this act.

The ÖBVP is unremittingly lobbying for improved provision of psychotherapy as part of the national health service.

Mag. Karl-Ernst Heidegger
ÖBVP Vicepresident and ÖBVP Delegate to the EAP



Situation in Belgium - updated as per October 2017:

June 2017: from September 1st: law on psychology, special pedagogy and psychotherapy: only Masters Clincal Psychology, Masters Special pedagogy and GP's can study and practice psychotherapy; existing and practising psychotherapists can't work any longer as autonomous and must work under supervision.

September 2017: Belgian NAO-NUO (Belgian Association for Psychotherapy) starts procedure in Constitutional Court (concerning the existing psychotherapists)
December 2017: the Constitutional Court decides a delay on the application of the law for existing and practising psychotherapist
February 2017: the Constitutional Court suspends article 11 and 12 of the law: existing and practising psychotherapist on September 1st 2017 (regardless their basic diploma, even without Bachelor) can continu as an autonomous and without any transitional condition!: they will have to prove their existance on September 1st 2017 by 2018 (they still don't know how we have to prove it... probably just by our VAT number)

Students who finished their 1st year of Prof. Bachelor in June 2017 (even not specific in Human Sciense, so an accountant will do also...); can still enter a psychotherapy training (min. 70 ECTS), during their study or after their Prof. Bachelor (their psychotherpay study can anly take place in an academy in association with college or university; no more private academies). They will have to exercise their profession 'not autonomous' (patients have to be send by the GP's, or psychologists) and under supervision.

Students who have started their Prof. Bachelor in September 2017, can't enter a psychotherapy training anymore (they can, but they will not be recognised and they can not practice psychotherapy). Only Masters clinical psychologist, special pedagogy and GP's will be allowed in training.

Legislation on psychotherapy in Belgium –  status February 2014

Until now, there was no legislation concerning psychotherapy, and besides Medical Doctors all other psychotherapists were in fact practicing illegaly.

Now a law has been voted in the Parliament (April 2014) and must be fully applicable latest September 2016.
Presently, the situation has to be considered as a transition period (many questions but few answers yet).
The law defines psychotherapy as the usual accomplishment of autonomous acts and psychotherapeutic interventions aiming at eliminating or at reducing the psychic difficulties, conflicts or disorders of an individual person or a group of persons considered as a system including this individual person...
The Ministry of Health will deliver an official agreement (the title is now protected) in order to practice (the practice is also protected).
The law defines a general frame about practice and training of psychotherapy.

The future Federal Council for Psychotherapy will advise the Minister on the precise requirements for training and practice, on the psychotherapeutic modalities to be accepted, on continuous development and on grandparenting rules (most probably by the end of this year).

Minimal training required by Law:

1- Bachelor Degree in health, psychology, educational or social sciences, being at least 180 ECTS.

2- having acquired the basic notions of psychology in a University or High School
These notions consist of: general psychology/ psychiatry and psychopathology/ psychopharmacology/ psychodiagnostic/ introduction to main psychotherapeutic orientations/ scope of Mental Health sector.

3- after completion of 1 and 2, a specific training in psychotherapy of at least 70 ECTS during 4 years in an accredited training institute (university or private), consisting of at least 500 hours of theory and at least 1600 hours of supervised clinical practice.

Modalities: the law recognizes four main references/domains:

- psychoanalytic and psychodynamic oriented psychotherapies;
- behavioral and cognitive oriented psychotherapies;
- systemic and family oriented psychotherapies;
- humanistic, person-centered and experiential psychotherapies.

Other modalities may be accepted later on by the Federal Council.

Requirements for Self-experience are not mentionned in the law but will be added specifically for each modality according to the opinion of the Federal Council.

The Federal Council will be composed of 8 members of each of the four main references plus two psychiatrists (a total of 34 members).    

The law points out the importance of a Code of Ethics and the necessity of collaborating with other professions of the mental Health sector (eg. medical doctors).

We are waiting now for a Federal Government after the elections we had, last May.
This Federal Government has to appoint a Federal Minister of Health, whom will set up the Federal Council for Psychotherapy.

Charles Sasse (president) and Philippe Vrancken (vice-president)                                                                   



The situation of psychotherapy in the Netherlands, 2017

In the Netherlands a restrictive law on psychotherapy applies. The entrance level as well as the modality-training is defined by governmental bodies.
This means that only psychologists, psychiatrists and medical doctors can start a modality-training in cognitive-behavioural therapy. After their training, these psychotherapists enter a national register that had been installed by law and is being governed by a governmental authority.

All other modalities are so called ‘alternative’ therapies and are not accepted by the national register. It is even prohibited to use the word ‘psychotherapist’ as this resembles the word ‘psychotherapeut’ too much and this is one of the protected titles in the governmental register. So far, the word ‘ECP-therapist’ is used instead.
Since 1997 the NAP (the Dutch awarding organisation of EAP) started to organize the ‘alternative’ psychotherapists in the ECP register. Only modalities recognised by EAP can be registered.

NAP started a register and checked the entrance level at level 6: first University degree. Other therapists in other modalities of alternative therapies (acupuncture, osteopathy, massage therapies etc.) receive recognition by some Dutch Health Insurance Companies and they meet lower requirements than the ECP-level guarantees.

The Netherlands has a fully privatised system of medical health insurances.
To be in the NAP register and to be reimbursed by the insurance companies, therapists have to prove they meet three requirements:
- They master the psycho-social basic knowledge (level 6) which is now mandatory for the health insurance companies;
- They are trained in a psychotherapy modality recognized by EAP
- They fulfil CPD requirements every two year.
The register of NAP is public and is also checked by the insurance companies.
The number of registered ECP holders with NAP is about 350.
Most psychotherapists  work in private practise where clients pay about
€ 50,00  to € 120,00 per hour.
Most  psychotherapists and psychiatrists in the state-register working in a clinical setting are paid by the clinic.

The situation of psychotherapy in the Netherlands, 2014

In the Netherlands a restrictive law on psychotherapy applies. The entrance level as well as the modality-training is defined by governmental bodies.
This means that only psychologists, psychiatrists and medical doctors can start a modality-training in cognitive-behavioural therapy or family therapy. After their training, these psychotherapists enter a national register that had been installed by law and is being governed by a governmental authority.
All other modalities are so called ‘alternative’ therapies and are not accepted by the national register. It is even prohibited to use the word ‘psychotherapist’ as this resembles the word ‘psychotherapeut’ too much and this is one of the protected titles in the governmental register. So far, the word ‘ECP-therapist’ is used instead.

Since 1997 the NAP (the Dutch awarding organisation of EAP) started to organize the ‘alternative’ psychotherapists in the ECP register.
NAP started a register and checked the entrance level at level 6: first University degree. To do this thoroughly, NAP described 11 modules to which students have to prove they master the topics at level 6. The subjects of these modules are mentioned in the ECP text.
NAP registers two student levels as well. Other therapists in other modalities of alternative therapies (acupuncture, osteopathy, massage therapies etc.) receive recognition by some Dutch Health Insurance Companies and they meet lower requirements than the ECP-level guarantees. As a consequence, the student level-registration at NAP can in some cases also lead to recognition by some health insurance companies, which then leads to partial refund of the cost of therapy to clients by their insurer.
The Netherlands has a fully privatised system of medical health insurances.

To be in the NAP register, therapists have to prove they meet three requirements:
- They master the 11 modules of the entrance level;
- They are trained in a psychotherapy modality recognized by EAP
- They fulfil CPD requirements every year.
The register of NAP is public. The number of registered ECP holders is about 400, trained in one of the modalities recognized in EAP.

In 2013 and 2014 the healthcare insurance companies stopped to reimburse almost all psychotherapists, the ‘recognized’ field and the ‘alternative’ field.

Most psychotherapists  work in private practise where clients pay about
€ 50, 00  to € 120,00 per hour. Most  psychotherapists and psychiatrists in the state-register working in a clinical setting are paid by the clinic.



German situation of psychotherapy


In 1999 a psychotherapists' (not psychotherapy!) law was passed which made psychotherapist a licenced health profession with similar rights and duties as physicians but limited allowances (restricted are prescribing of medication or other medical interventions as physical therapy, referal to other doctors, referal to a psychiatric clinic).


The psychotherapists' law requires a postgradual training after a university degree which contains the following elements:
- 600 hours of theory lessons, including the chosen psychotherapy approach, mental disorders, interventions and some information about the other psychotherapy approaches accepted by the camber of psychotherapists
- 1200 hours of practicum in a psychiatric institution
- 600 hours of practicum in a different psychiatric or psychotherapeutic/ outpatient institution
- 120 hours of self-experience
- 600 hours of treatment in the chosen approach under supervision (every 4. session = 150 hours)

The training is conducted at institutes which have to be privately paid, training is not publicly funded. The structure of those institutions can be university integrated, non-profit-organisation or profit-related institution.

Subgroups of licenced psychotherapists

The profession of licenced psychotherapists can be devided into several groups with different qualification requirements:

1. according to their target group: There are the psychotherapists for adults and psychotherapists for children and adolescents.
a) Psychotherapists for adults: They have to be psychologists on master's level (or former diploma).
b) Psychotherapists for children and adolescents: They can either be the above or a have a degree in the educational field. Here the requirements differ from region to region. In some areas it can be at bachelor's degree, different fields of study are accepted.

2. according to their professional background: There are psychological and medical psychotherapists.
a) Psychological psychotherapists have a psychology degree and the above described postgradual training.
b) Medical psychotherapists have a medical degree and undergo a similar training but require less hours of theory and treatment.

Important institutions

a) The chamber of psychotherapists regulates and monitors the professional competencies and qualities. Membership of licenced psychotherapists is mandatory. It's science board decides on which psychotherapeutic approaches are scientifically proven, so that a psychotherapist trained in that approach can obtain the official licence. Here, five psychotherapeutic approaches have been accepted so far as scienticially proven: cognitive-behavioral, psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, client-centered and systemic.

b) The second important actor is the national licence board for any medical intervention (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, short: GBA) which decides on which intervention is scientifically and cost-effective enough to be payed by public ensurance as regular
Ironically, only three out of five have been accepted: cognitive-behavioral, psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Client-centered approach was denied by the board because the studies submitted were seen as unsufficient scientific evidence. A request from systemic approach is currently under review. Lately, there has been an initiative from different methods on common ground to form a union of humanistic approaches. A new request to the board was made in 2013 but has not yet been revised.

The consequences of this gap between licenced psychotherapists in an approach accepted by the GBA and one not accepted are that there is almost no training institutes in the later two approaches. Non-GBA-accepted licenced psychotherapists can practice psychotherapy but will not be able to have a practice where their patients can get publicly financed treatment.

"Non-licenced" psychotherapists
Besides licenced psychotherapists there is a huge amount of psychotherapeutically trained professionals which do not meet the criteria required by psychotherapists' law. For them it is possible to obtain a legal permission to treat patients/clients by a "health practicioner" licence in the area of psychotherapy (Heilpraktiker für Psychotherapie). It is granted by the federal bureaus of health. The licence can either be given after a theoretical exam or when proving relevant qualification level (as a psychology degree which contained the subject of clinical psychology). Anyone who obtained the health practicioner's licence can have a private practice (not funded by public ensurance but privately paid by clients). They are not allowed to call themselves psychotherapists but can include the term "psychotherapy" in their professional description. Practioners have a very broad spectrum of psychotherapy training, ranging from technically only theoretical to ECP-Level.

Numbers and facts

Public ensurance pays 80€ for a psychotherapy session. For regular short term treatment public ensurance grants 25 hours of therapy. In cognitive-behavioral therapy a long-term therapy means 45 hours, psychodynamic approaches need more hours. Therapists have to write a report which is revised by an expert to get the grant from public ensurance.
There are around 22000 licenced psychotherapists, 50% have their own practice (mostly public ensurance based). The other ca. 50 % of work in institutions.
There are also around 22000 professionals with the "health practictioner" permit.

Psychotherapists's law reform

The new grand coalition government annouced a law reform by the end of the term in 2017. In November 2014 the federal chamber of psychotherapists voted in favor of a university psychotherapy training similar to the German structure of medicine: After a university degree follows a five-year professional on-the-job training (which will inclued a trainee salary) specialising in a modality. Contents of the university degree, especially how much psychology and psychotherapy contents will be included, are currently being developed. By the end of 2016 the ministry of health will have published the first draft of the new law.


Situation of Psychotherapy in various countries





















United Kingdom



The situation of Psychotherapy in France

Legal status

In France, the title of “psychotherapist” is protected since 2010, without any definition, whereas the practice is not regulated by French law

- The use of the title of psychotherapist is restricted for professionals registered in the national register of psychotherapists.
- This register is established by the regional authorities (ARS) in the district of the professional practice. For more information

To register, the applicant must be
- medical doctor,
- psychologist (master degree)
- and/or psycho-analyst regularly registered in a psychoanalysis association directory.

All new students must have these titles to begin any specialised training required by the law.

Apart from psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, all must undergo some additional training: 200 to 400 hours of psychopathology, and 2 to 5 months of practice in a institution (fieldwork).

The former psychotherapists who have been officially practicing for more than 5 years before the 20th of may 2010 can apply to be registered, after a control by a regional committee of 6 professionals: 2 psychiatrists, 2 psychologists and 2 psychoanalysts; 2 of them must be professors in University.
The applicants can be required to follow a complementary training in psychopathology and/or 2 to 5 months of field training (fieldwork).

Some private institutes can ask to be accredited (by the same committees) for the training in psychopathology. They must have a scientific committee and a research team.

To read the texts of the law (in French), click the links below:

- LOI n° 2004-806 du 9 août 2004 relative à la politique de santé publique,

- Décret n° 2010-534 du 20 mai 2010 relatif à l'usage du titre de psychothérapeute,

- Arrêté du 9 juin 2010 relatif aux demandes d'inscription au registre national des psychothérapeutes,

- Décret n° 2012-695 du 7 mai 2012 modifiant le décret n° 2010-534 du 20 mai 2010 relatif à l'usage du titre de psychothérapeute.

FF2P – Fédération Française de Psychothérapie et Psychanalyse

The FF2P was founded 17 years ago in order to provide a framework and regulations for the practice of psychotherapy at a time when no regulation and supervision of the practice existed. Our concern has always been the protection of users. We agree with EAP criteria and the Strasbourg Declaration on Psychotherapy of 1990.

The FF2P has defined specific criteria to give the people living in France a guarantee of the training and professionalism of practitioners trained by institutes accredited training by FF2P.
It is also for these reasons that well before the proposed legislation and the adoption of the 2010 law, the FF2P had established a register that users can refer to to find a practitioner or a training institute.
1 500 psychotherapists, 21 associations and 36 training institutes (including 16 EAPTIs)
are registered by the FF2P and listed in its directory.

Other information:

Payment: the clients pay around 60 euros for one session

Psychotherapy is not reimbursed by the Social security system, except, in hospitals and in some cases, when it is practiced by medical doctors (very partly).
Some private insurance companies may reimburse partially.

The minister of Health is responsible for psychotherapy.

The 2010 law recognizes no psychotherapy methods or modalities. It only mentions psychopathology.




Situation Psychotherapy in Kosovo

by Kosova Association for Psychotherapy (KAP)

=> see PDF file:


Situation Psychotherapy in Poland

by Polish Federation for Psychotherapy (PFP)

=> see PDF file:

European Association for Psychotherapy - Mariahilfer Straße 1d/3. Stock/Tür 13, A-1060 Vienna, Austria -

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